Does math make your homeschooled child anxious? Here are tried and true **math tips for struggling students**!

Your child is in tears again. It’s time for math. You know that they can do it, but they don’t believe you. They struggle through the lesson. They don’t understand any of the tips or tricks to calculate the answer faster. They are reliant on fingers and counting – even if they are multiplying 7 times 8.

You are just as frustrated as they are and math soon becomes a dreaded chore. Sound familiar? Let’s unpack math struggles and get you and your child into a better math space.

## Untangle the Stress Response

#### Struggling Students Often Get Stressed When They See the Math Book

First, we need to unravel the dread. If your child is stressed about math, they are not in a space to learn. Stress actually blocks higher learning. You can read about the neuroscience of how stress blocks learning here.

One way to undo the stress related to math is to take a break. If your child is behind, you may not feel comfortable taking a complete break. Whether you take some time off from math studies or not, you can take a break from the **curriculum** you are using. Use these math tips for struggling students to study math in a different way:

- You can spend some time just watching fun math videos together.
- Or do a math unit study.
- Or buy some math
**games**and just play a game every day. - Or get a few fun hands-on activities that you can rotate through the week.

The point is, you need to unravel your child’s stress reaction to math before you move forward with the next steps. As you move forward, keep in mind that you need to keep your child’s relationship with numbers positive.

This does not mean your child won’t ever get frustrated. They will. Math is hard. Math is hard because it requires thinking, and thinking is hard. But you can dispel a lot of stress simply by acknowledging that it is hard, reminding them that each concept gets easier with practice, and not expecting them to learn faster than they are able.

## 5 Ways to Help Your Child with Math Tips for Struggling Students

### 1. Get the math facts memorized.

#### Why? To free space in working memory for new concepts.

Memorizing math facts can seem pretty dull and redundant. But without the basic facts memorized, kids do not have the space left in working memory to focus on thinking about the new concept that is being introduced. Everyone has a limited amount of space in working memory. We get around this limitation to complete complex tasks by storing a lot of data in our long-term memory.

If a **math fact** is in long-term memory, a child can pull it up into working memory in a split second, when needed, and then let it go. But if the fact isn’t there, the child has to use their working memory to make that calculation.

If their working memory is also trying to remember all the steps for long division, he has to let those steps drop out of working memory while he calculates. This means that by the time he has the needed math fact he may have no idea where to write that number down. (Because he doesn’t have the long division steps memorized yet either and he had did not have room for those steps and the multiplication calculations to both be present in working memory at the same time.) This leads to a lot of frustration. Your child just went through all this work and now they are stuck again.

It is okay to patiently remind a child over and over again while they are learning new concepts. You can also give them a clear example sheet to refer to. But one of the best ways to help them retain new concepts is by clearing up space in their working memory so they can be fully concentrated, thinking about that new concept.

Our brains do not like to think. So, if we spend a lot of time thinking about something, the brain will decide to store it in long-term memory.

To free up the space they need, help them memorize their math facts. Memorizing math facts does not have to be boring. There are many ways to make it fun. Here are some math tips for struggling students to make fact practice more enjoyable.

- Games – card games, board games, computer games, and apps.

- Just a little bit of practice every day. This can be done with a few small problems, maybe five, encourage your child to see how fast they can answer.

- Silly songs or stories. Sometimes these memory devices are the magic trick that a child needs to finally cross that info into long-term memory. This may be because it creates another connection to the information. The more connections to information, the more our brain knows that we will need this information again, and it also knows right where to store that information.

- Hands-on activities. These can be simple like counting by 4 while doing jumping jacks, or getting a giant numbers mat and jumping to every multiple of 7 in order. Mixing up physical activity, which children’s brains crave, with the practice of math facts can keep things fun and light.

Pick out 5 different ways you think your child would have fun practicing and do one each weekday. Novelty is one way to harness to the power of the reticular activating system which is a part of the brain that determines whether or not your child should be paying attention to the information being received. So, while you may be tempted to only utilize one method to memorize facts, your child will learn them much faster if you mix it up a little.

### 2. Use manipulatives.

#### Moving from known to unknown, concrete to abstract.

Let’s talk about fractions. If the first time your child ever sees or is introduced to a fraction is in a math book, their brain is not going to have any idea where to store this new abstract idea. But if your child has seen fractions in recipes, heard about fractions as you cut a pizza, or put four quarters together to pay for an item at the dollar store, then their brain knows where to put this new abstract idea. The samples already exist. The child knows about fractions and when they get to it in the math book it is simply a matter of naming the concept, and then they are ready to learn about fractions on a deeper level.

Much of math is abstract. But learning abstract concepts is a difficult task. To do it, a child needs many concrete examples so that they can see the underlying pattern behind all those examples. As we move deeper into math is becomes difficult to relate every concept back to a concrete part of the child’s world. But the more we can use **hands-on manipulatives** to introduce concepts the easier it will be for them to grasp that abstract idea behind those operations and equations.

### 3. Get visual.

#### The more different types of examples used for an abstract idea, the more likely a student will catch on to the underlying concept by seeing the pattern of the concept used in different ways.

In addition to using manipulatives whenever possible, having a variety of visual examples of a concept is also very helpful. Many math concepts can actually be represented visually two or three different ways.

There are different notations to solving a problem. One notation is generally considered the most efficient and becomes the standard that is taught. But the standard notation is not the most important part of math. The most important part is understanding the abstract concept that the notation represents.

Again, showing several ways you can calculate a more complex problem and creating great visual examples creates more examples connected with the abstract idea. The more different kinds of examples that are provided the easier it is for the brain to grasp what that underlying abstract concept is.

### 4. Make sure you have a good curriculum.

This brings us to a brief discussion of **curriculum**. Because some curriculum has no hands-on activities, which is fine if you are comfortable supplementing that on your own.

Some curriculum skips the visuals.

Some curricula just does not provide enough examples for the child to have any idea what abstract concept they are practicing.

And many curriculums are really attached to one way of notating things and don’t take the time to show kids different methods which actually would help them connect to process and procedures with the underlying abstract concept.

Thinking about how the brain learns can help you pick an excellent curriculum. But don’t feel like you chose the wrong one just because your child is struggling with math, some students struggle even with the best curriculum. Sometimes the magic is just in how you use the curriculum you already have. Which brings us to the next strategy for helping your struggling student.

### 5. Redo the work.

It’s okay to redo math. Going back a second time means your child has more pegs in their brain to connect the concepts to and the ideas will make more sense and stick better.

You can redo math without your child really knowing. If the idea would upset them it is okay not to tell them. Just switch curriculum and tell them you found something that you think will help them understand math better. Most curriculum doesn’t even have grade level numbers on it anymore. Going through a second time can help boost your child’s confidence with numbers because, for once, everything is making sense. Going back can be worth is just for the confidence boost.

But the main reason is that everything your child learns in elementary math needs to be easy before they can move on to Pre-Algebra. If your child knows that they struggle with math, and they are at peace with it, they may be fine repeating a level of the same curriculum. Or even just a unit of the program that focuses on the concepts they struggled with the most.

Repetition is another part of learning and a curriculum cannot know how much repetition your child needs before they have mastered concepts.

Sometimes your child’s brain may just not be developmentally ready to understand the next math concept. That is okay. And it does not mean you have to stop all math. You can move to a different area, maybe some geometry, symmetry, or work on basic multiplication facts. You can come back to that tricky concept as many times as you need to and explain it as many different ways as you can find. Eventually, between all the examples you have provided and the growth of their brain, the lightbulb will turn on and they will get it.

Math struggles can be frustrating. But if we can take a step back and create an environment that is encouraging, positive, and fun, while acknowledging to our child that we know what they are doing is hard, but it is also a great workout for their brain, math can be a tear-free time of day. Take these math tips for struggling students and turn your child’s anxiety about math around this school year.

- Math Tips for Struggling Homeschool Students - August 27, 2020